What does the 3R mean?

Recycle-Recover-Reuse zero emission and auto-thermal pyrolysis technology in which the material is processed at 850°C material core. The 3R is energy self-sustaining and producing surplus green electric/thermal energy. Novel, original and specific solution that is invented, designed and engineered by Edward Someus.

What does the BioPhosphate mean?

ABC Animal Bone Char (CAS no: 8021-99-6 EC: 232-421-2) macro-porous hydroxilapatite natural mineral (92% calcium-phosphate and 8% carbon), which specific quality is 3R processed for biofertilizer and adsorbent applications.

What does the 3R formulation mean?

Specific biotech processing of BioPhosphate for creation of wide range of BIO-NPK-C compound biofertilizer for organic/low input farming applications.

What does the 3R adsorbent mean?

Specific BioPhosphate product with high surface area that is used for water and liquid treatment applications to capture pollutants. After use can be regenerated.

What does the bone meal mean?

High protein content animal rendering product that is steam thermal processed at 133°C under 20 minutes and 3 bars pressure condition.

What does the biochar mean?

Plant based high carbon <90% content and micro-porous charcoal type soil improver that is pyrolysis processed at 450°C into sufficient quality.

What does the upcycling mean?

High added value transformation of unexploited biomass into new products, perceived to be of greater quality and environmental/climate value with second life and new function that finished product becomes more practical and valuable than what it previously was. Upcycling is incl. recycling but at higher level.

What does the recycling mean?

Processing of materials that would otherwise be thrown away as trash and turning them into useful products.


Thermal processing of carbonaceous (carbon-based) raw materials under  absence of air full reductive conditions in a range of 350°C to 850°C with prime aim to produce refined and porous solid carbon materials for wide range of industrial product applications, incl. activated carbon adsorbers.

What does the gasification mean?

Thermal processing of carbonaceous (carbon-based) raw materials under semi oxidative conditions with controlled amount of oxygen, air, oxygen-enriched air, and/or steam in a range of 700°C to 1100°C with prime aim to produce industrial gas mixtures called “synthesis gas,” or syngas for energy production.

What does the Incineration mean?

Thermal processing of carbonaceous (carbon-based) raw materials under full oxidative conditions under 900°C to 1200°C temperatures for destructive combustion/burning of substances to produce energy.

What is 3R Pyrolysis?


is Reductive Thermal Processing.

The 3R Recycle-Reuse-Reduce is a zero emission low temperature carbonization (pyrolysis) is a reductive thermal decomposition processing. The 3R slow pyrolysis process is based on a horizontally arranged indirectly heated rotary kiln designed for reductive thermal decomposition of plant biomass at 450 °C (842 °F) or animal origin biomasses at as high as 850 °C (1562 °F) material core temperature ranges in vacuum (absence of oxygen).

The system works with zero emission, comprehensive recycling and reuse of all process materials and gases. The target of the 3R Zero Emission

Pyrolysis Process

is the added value upgrading/valorisation of agro/food industrial organic by-products into safe and high value recovered Bio-Phosphate fertiliser products for organic and low input farming cultivation.

Pyrolysis of biomass substances produces solid residue rich in carbon content and separated volatile crude pyrolysis gas which may be condensed into liquid crude oil and non condensable gases. After catalytic conversion of crude pyrolysis liquid products, refiner bio-oil produced. The 3R pyrolysis is safer, better, faster, more economical and environmental friendly than any other solutions.

The 3R system is also integrated into the novel agro biotechnological – solid state fermentation and formulation, and syngas/bio-oil refinery processing units.

The 3R is an engineered full scale industrial design, that development has been completed by 2020.

What is the concept of 3R Zero Pyrolysis and Phosphorus Recovery processing?

The “3R” Recycle–Reduce-Reuse Zero Emission Pyrolysis and Phosphorus Recovery processing is a mimic of the Nature that emits no any waste products that pollutes the environment or disrupts the climate, in which process all and any materials and energy are recycled and reused into useful products.

The Nature cannot afford to waste materials and/or waste of energy, while it always finds the most efficient material and energy recycling, recovery and reuse conversion pattern during the ever ongoing bio-geo-chemical cycles. In order to mimic the Nature, the 3R bio-geo-chemical process - where it is possible, necessary and/or advantageous - coherently integrates the carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen related cycles, such as:

  1. Phosphorus recovery from animal by products, including NPK-C and micronutrient formulations.
  2. Carbon Recycling and Refining, thermal processing by carbonization for recycling of carbon for wide range of natural and carbon negative product applications.
  3. Carbon Bio-formulation, biotech formulation of carbon for efficient bio and plant availability of NPK nutrient uptake process support.
  4. Carbon Bio-energy, chemical processing of pyrolysis gases and refined oils for liquid fuel bio-energy production.
What are the solid technical bases of 3R Zero emission pyrolysis technology
  • Strategic & key important invention in global scale; providing advanced technology and products in the business and market field of added value recycling and recovery of materials.
  • Breakthrough, evidence-based and innovative technology.
  • EU recognized pyrolysis development: the 3R technology is developed under EU Commission programmes (2002-2018).
  • High added value processing of food industrial organic by-products. Organic phosphorus recovery from animal by-products.
  • Comprehensive and full scale designed and tested.
  • Proven, industrial demonstrated and industrial permitted technology and original solution.
  • Despite its advanced performance it does not contain exotic technical solutions and materials.
  • Economical scale from > 20,800 t/y throughput industrial capacity.
What are the sustainability criteria of 3R system?

The "3R" Recycle-Reduce-Reuse Zero Emission Pyrolysis technology and Phosphorus recovery is a circular economical system, where all martial streams are added value recycled and reused, that is the “3R zero emission “ concept and converted to fully safe products, such as the formulated Bio-Phosphate products.

The 3R is an industrial case to demonstrate the full implementation of the circular economy, where critical elements are equally important, such as

  1. Environmental and climate sustainability with zero emission processing and carbon negative  applications.
  2. The Bio-Phosphate is produced from a sustainable and renewable by-product streams.
  3. Product is safe to use with below detectable cadmium content.
  4. Targeting social and environmental impacts, improved food quality & safety for less cost.
  5. High efficient energy conversion process. Energy self-sufficient and auto-thermal process.
  6. Low-cost/low-energy supply chain.

All these aspects are on the same page already from the beginning. The 3R is utilization of unexploited biomass resources, high efficient conversion of organic by-products streams into an high added value recovered products, while providing strong job creation opportunities for the interests and benefits of SMEs. As the 3R system is highly flexible, it can be tailor made formulated country by country, region by region, that flexibility is highly important to meet the local technical, environmental, climate, economical and social conditions in the different areas of the world on global level. The 3R is a resource efficient, low carbon and improved industrial production of FOOD with better utilization of resources that is combined with improved WATER management.

What are the sustainability criteria for input feed materials used by 3R system?

Generally the 3R is using un-exploited biomass by-product streams from the agricultural and food industries for added value processing. In all cases the basic sustainability criteria for 3R feeds, that these input material streams do not compete with human food, animal feed and plant nutrition supply. The inputs are always low grade non food & agri by-products and not from primer or secondary agricultural land use that are related to food production. The high feed flexibility provides high added value and wide range of different types of output products together with wide range of market demanded application possibilities targeted in the rapidly developing natural soil fertilization agro markets, green energy and environmental adsorbent business.

What types of input streams has the 3R technology processed?

Line 1: biomass to recovered innovative organic phosphorus fertilizer:

  • Category 3 and 2 bone grist (cattle or pig bone and/or any other type) animal by-product: innovative bio-phosphate fertilizer recovery from food grade animal bone.
  • Sea food by-products (fish bone, calcareous shell of molluscs, crust shells of crustaceans).

Line 2: biomass to soil improver:

  •  Plant based agricultural and forest industrial by-product material streams.
  •  Any other organic by-product material streams.
What are the key diferrences between slaughterhouse output crude animal by-products and it's derived products from rendering industries?

The outputs of the slaughterhouses are farmed animal products for human consumption and crude animal by-products that are further processed in other industries, such as fat processing and rendering industries to make new and safely derived products. All slaughterhouse crude ABPs must be processed, that is resulting derived products in the rendering industry. Slaughterhouses do not process animal by-products but deliver such materials to other and specialized ndustries, specialized for fat processing and rendering operations only at the usual processing condition 133°C.

The direct agricultural use of the crude protein content animal rendering products provides high environmental risk by possible trans and recontamination by human and animal pathogens. Despite animal rendering by-products (protein based bone meal and MBM) are sterile products at the point of production, there is a very high risk for cross and recontamination during applications. While rendered products leave the cooker negative of the bacteria, recontamination can occur anywhere along the way. Not all animal by-products are suitable for production of high quality recovered Phosphorus fertiliser.


What is Bone Meal/Grist?

Bone Meal is made from selected Category 3 food grade animal bones only, collected in separate industries and processed separately, with processing under the same conditions as above (this is therefore distinct from MBM or PAP). It contains typically about 30–38% protein content, 50–62% mineral, 5–8% fat, and 7-10% moisture. Bone Meal/Bone Grist is used for production and extraction of gelatine for the human food industry; China bone (burned bone ash powder for porcelain industry); pet food and ABC Bio-Phosphate production by 3R Zero Emission Pyrolysis technology. This type of granular and 1-5 mm sized biochar product with 30% P2O5 high nutrient density is made of food grade animal bones and can be used as full value organic fertiliser or as an adsorbent.

What is MBM – Meat and Bone Meal?

MBM - meat and bone meal mix is made by “rendering” of categories 1 and 2 ABP materials by processing at 133°C at 2 bars pressure for at least 20 minutes, to ensure partial sanitization (this is considered to be sufficient to eliminate bacteria and viruses but not prions, which prion elimination require processing temperature treatment over 500°C) . The rendered product typically contains about 48–52% high protein content, 33–35% ash, 8–12% fat, and 7-10% moisture. The MBM rendering process produces energy or the products are taken in energy-production installations authorized to take these categories of Animal By Products for energy conversion. Meat and Bone Meal Ash is produced by high temperature incineration/calcination treatment of MBM in a heat process conform to the Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU Incineration Directive) Article 6 = conditions of incineration at minimum 850°C for at least 2 seconds, TOC (total organic carbon) in ash powder <3%. These conditions ensure complete elimination of all pathogens. MBM is used for energy.

What is PAP - Processed Animal Protein?

PAP - Processed Animal Protein is made only from non ruminant (pigs, chicken, horses, fish) origin and Category 3 food grade animal by-products, with high protein content by processing under the same conditions as MBM (see above). The broad variety of PAPs including blood meal (90-95% proteins), poultry (65-68% proteins), feathers (80-85% proteins), pork products (55-65% proteins) and fishmeal. PAP is used for high protein content pet food and fish feed.

What is pyrolysis material?

Pyrolysis material is plant and/or animal bone biomass origin stabile carbon carboniferous and legally labelled product with functionality of solid organic fertilizer and/or solid organo-mineral fertilizer and/or organic soil improver. Pyrolysis material is a chemically modified substance, which – depending on the highly variable feed materials - may have either variable composition and complex reaction products (REACH-UVCB) or well defined mono and multiconstituent character. All biochar/pyrolysis material products in the EU are characterized by:

  1. Mandatory EU and MS Government Authority permitted for import, manufacturing, placing on the market and application above 1 t/year capacity,
  2. REACH certified above 1 t/year capacity import, manufacturing, placing on the market and application,
  3. labeled and full value chain safe product,
  4. having Extended Producer Responsibly product guarantees,
  5. the input material made from is sustainable sourced, e.g. not competing with human food, animal feed and plant nutrition supply, not from primarily and secondarily land use and having environmentally sustainable logistics, while meets the EU Circular Economy incentive relevant sections.

In this context the safe biochar/pyrolysis product equally importantly meets all the four elemental criteria and it is:

  1. commonly used for specific purposes with functionality of natural solid organic fertilizer and/or solid organo-mineral fertilizer and/or organic soil improver; and
  2. there is an existing market and demand for safe biochar; and
  3. the use is lawful, fulfils the technical requirements for the specific purposes and meets all the exisitng legislation and standards applicable to biochar product; and d) the use will not lead to overall adverse environmental and/or human health impacts.

The high mineral content animal bone based Bio-Phosphate pyrolysis material is a recovered organic P/Ca fertilizer at 100-600 kg/ha dose rate and growing media in the horticultural sector. The high carbon content plant based /pyrolysis material is soil improver usually at approx. 5000-20000 kg/ha dose rate for water/nutrient retention and carbon sequestration applications, but providing no fertilizer effects with economical importance. For both type of pyrolysis material types there is a long list of additional beneficial effects. Legal notice: Biochar/pyrolysis material soil applications are irreversible; therefore commercial key players such as industrial producers, market distributors for placing product on the market and users having high legal, economical and social responsibilities with joint and several liability for their activities. In this context, beyond the mandatory EU/MS permits, operational and use licenses the preventive and precautionary principle (connected to international, EU and Member State legislations) and its instruments are to be fully implemented as well.

Is pyrolysis material a new product?

No, pyrolysis material is not a new product. In modern age since 1870, the time of the technology revolution, many carbon processing technologies and many different types of carbon products developed, produced and applied in large industrial scale, especially related to the WWI., WWII. and past decades of activated carbon operations. The carbon processing technologies and carbon products are the most extensively scientific/technical researched and technological developed past 130 years. Majority of the carbon processing technologies and carbon products developed for energetic and activated carbon adsorbent applications. Some of them have been successful, others are not.

However, the knowledge based environmental norms and standards have been significantly upgraded past 20 years that have been impacting the performance and safety requirements of the carbon processing technologies and its products as well. Therefore, new generation safe and efficient pyrolysis technology and product system need to be developed in modern age.

Since 1980’s Edward Someus is specialized for pyrolysis and carbon processing technologies (“3R” zero emission pyrolysis) and different types of biochar products, while since 2002 primarily focused on a new generation ABC (Animal Bone Char) BioPhosphate S&T and industrial engineering under the European Commission RTD programmes, that development has successfully reached large industrial scale-up capacity by the end of 2020.

What is the Bio-Phosphate?

Bio-Phosphate: this type of pyrolysis material is made of food grade animal bones and characterized by as high as 92% mineral carbon and 8% carbon content only. This is a full value recovered organic Phosphorus fertilizer with high calcium and content.

Bio-Phosphate is a recovered organic P-fertiliser, made from animal bone grist, having high nutrient density (30% P2O5) and pure P-content. The rendering industrial origin food grade category animal bone grist processed ABC Animal Bone bioChar is a nutrient dense (30% P2O5) organic fertilizer with as high as 92% pure calcium phosphate and 8% carbon content only. Therefore the Bio-Phosphate product functionality is recovered organic fertilizer, soil improver, growing medium and/or fertilising product blend, with usual doses between 100 kg/ha to 600 kg/ha.

Why do we need Bio-Phosphate
  • Phosphorus is strategic key element of the food crop and animal production in agriculture. NO P = NO Agriculture = NO Food.
  • The EU is >95% is importing the mineral phosphate, most MS 100%.
  • The phosphate is recognized by the EC as critical raw material with high supply risk in 2017.
  • Mineral phosphate containing Cadmium, Uranium and other toxic elements.
  • Growing food demand = growing phosphorus demand.
  • Finite phosphate: the low Cadmium and Uranium content mineral fertilizer resources already used up and in the future only contaminated resources are available.
  • Geopolitical risks: imported Phosphate is an critically important issue for the national security already now. All farmers need phosphorus, yet just 5 countries control 88% of the worlds remaining phosphate rock reserves.
  • An inefficient food system: large amount of P to waste streams, no recovery.
  • Cheap fertilizer: a thing of the past for farmers.
  • In the near future (2022) very drastic P price increase to come (In 2008 it was >700%).
How sustainable the Bio-Phosphate?
  • The Bio-Phosphate is environmental and climate sustainable with zero emission processing and carbon negative  applications.
  • The Bio-Phosphate is produced from a sustainable and renewable by-product streams.
  • Safe to use with below detectable cadmium content.
  • Targeting social and environmental impacts, improved food quality & safety for less cost.
  • High efficient energy conversion process. Energy self-sufficient and auto-thermal process.
  • Low-cost/low-energy supply chain.
What are the solid legal bases of 3R Zero emission pyrolysis technology and Bio-Phosphate products?
  • Fully permitted by EU MS Authorities under strict EU legislations.
  • Industrial scale pyrolysis plant installation and operation permit number: FES/01/0851-33/2015 (Issuing Authority Industrial Safety Inspection and ten other advising Authorities)
  • ABC (Anima Bone Char) Bio-Phosphate product horticultural application permit number: 6300/13393-2/2019.
What is the Phosphorus import substitution potential of Bio-Phosphate?

According to the EFPRA (European Fat Processor and Renderers Association) 328 million pigs, sheep, goats, beef and dairy cattle are slaughtered in the EU each year together with 6 billion poultries. 34% (pig) -42% (cattle, beef) of the animal is rendered. According to Eurostat 45.8 million tons live weight animals slaughtered in the EU in 2015 (Eurostat 2016). The European rendering industry (35 EFPRA members, 26 EU countries) processed more than 17 million raw materials in 2014 (EFPRA, 2015), from which the category 3 processed products are 12 million t/y. EFPRA members processing the majority of the total animal by-products in the EU and additionally significant amount of material streams produced by non-member organizations. The skeletal system can be up to 20 percent of the carcass weight, which mean that over 4 million tons of animal bone biomass produced in the EU annually. After rendering industrial processing at 133°C 20 min 3 bars the different types of rending product outputs are 2.7 million t/y animal fat, 3.9 million t/y animal proteins, 825,000 t/y fertilizer and other products, liquid fuel, oleochemicals and animal bone products.

The Eurostat is indicating that the estimated consumption of manufactured Phosphorus fertilisers in EU 27 (2014) was 1.11 million tons based on data provided by Fertiliser Europe. This is equivalent with 2,55 million to mineral P fertiliser expressed in P2O5. Around 90% of the phosphate rock used to produce fertilisers is imported.

Significant part substitution of phosphate import by recovered Phosphorus would be important goal for the European agriculture already in short term. The imported mineral Phosphorus agri substitution potential by bio ABC in European dimension is 3% (75,000 t/y P2O5) in short term <2025 and up to 20% in long term >2025.

What is the Plant Based pyrolysis material?

Plant based pyrolysis material: this type of pyrolysis material is made of plant material residuals and characterized by high carbon content, usually at 90% level, and used as soil improver with 5 – 20 t/ha doses, in average 10 t/ha in wide range of agricultural cultivations. Plant based pyrolysis material does not have fertilizer direct value with economical importance, but rather having water and nutrient retention effects, sequester carbon in the soil; improving crop yields, nutrient cycling and immobilize trace metals.

Does it require any EU/Member State Authority permit to install/operate a pyrolysis plant?

YES, in Europe there is mandatory requirement to get permit from the MS Authorities according to EU regulations to install/operate a pyrolysis plant for commercial production of all and any types of biochar and usually ten advising Authorities involved in this mandatory permit process. The REACH regulation is also defining mandatory certificate for import, placing on the market and manufacturing of commercial biochar above 1 t/y capacity.

Does it require any any EU/Member State Authority permit to use biochar/pyrolysis material in agriculture?

YES, there is mandatory requirement to get permit from the MS Authorities to commercialize and commercial use biochar/pyrolysis material (both plant based and animal bone char) in agriculture in any production ranges in the EU, which is having three mandatory elements:

  1. Mandatory MS Authority permit to commercial use biochar/pyrolysis material, valid in the applicant MS only with possibility for Mutual Recognition (Reg. EC 764/2008) in EU28. As soon as the revision of the EC 2003/2003 Fertilizer Regulation will include biochar/pyrolysis material (as expected in 2022), than this EU regulation will be valid in all EU28 Member States (EC Fertiliser). In case the MS defined stricter standard than the EC Fertiliser, than this upgraded standard will be valid and applied. Once adopted, it will be directly applicable, without the need for transposition into national law, after a transitional period allowing companies and public authorities to prepare for the new rules.
  2. “REACH” certification (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals[1]) is mandatory for import, manufacturing, placing on the market and use of biochar above 1 t/y capacity (1 t/y is valid from 2018 but in 2016 the mandatory certification limit is already above 10 t/y). “REACH” certification is a complex eco toxicological investigation measured according to GLP (Good Laboratory Practice) and is highly challenging both technically and from cost point of view as well.
  3. “EPR” Extended Producer Responsibility certificate.
What are the aims of the revision of the EC 2003/2003 Fertilisers Regulation?

The European Fertilizer Regulation has been under revision (EC No. 1069/2009) and is currently in the final trialogue negotiations (between the EU Council, Commission and Parliament). The main objective of the revision was the integration of organic fertilizers. This should enable European cross border trade of organic fertilisers.

Related to the Circular Economy Package:

The Fertilisers Regulation revision aims at establishing a regulatory framework enabling production of fertilisers from recovered bio-wastes and other secondary raw materials. This would boost domestic sourcing of plant nutrients which are essential for a sustainable European agriculture, including the critical raw material phosphorus. [1]

Related to the Internal Market Strategy:

The initiative supports the aim to create a deeper and fairer internal market with a strengthened industrial base, by removing existing barriers to free movement of certain innovative fertilisers and facilitating the market surveillance by Member States. The Fertilisers Regulation revision aims at addressing a well-known barrier to free movement on the internal market. [2]


[1] Roadmap to the Revision of the Fertilisers Regulation (EC) No 2003/2003, http://ec.europa.eu/smart-regulation/roadmaps/docs/2012_grow_001_fertili...

[2] Roadmap to the Revision of the Fertilisers Regulation (EC) No 2003/2003, http://ec.europa.eu/smart-regulation/roadmaps/docs/2012_grow_001_fertili...

What are the main elements of the proposal for revision of the EC 2003/2003 Fertilisers Regulation?

The proposal, COM(2016)157[1], contains several elements that will help create a level playing field for all fertilising products, while at the same time ensure high safety and environmental protection standards. The proposal:

  1. provides rules for free movement of all CE marked fertilising products across the EU: The current rules cover only inorganic fertilisers and agronomic additives. The proposal will allow all fertilising products, including those derived from recycled bio-waste and nutrients, to benefit of CE-marking that ensures free movement in the single market.
  2. updates the current requirements for inorganic CE marked fertilisers;
  3. maintains optional harmonisation – a manufacturer who does not wish to CE-mark the product and have unrestricted access to the entire EU single market can choose to opt for compliance with national rules instead – in line with the subsidiary principle.
  4. introduces new harmonised requirements for all CE marked fertilising products regarding
    • quality – such as minimum nutrient content, organic matter content, neutralizing values that are specific to each category of fertilising products;
    • safety – such as maximum limits for heavy metals, including cadmium, for organic contaminants, for microbial contaminants and for impurities specific to each category of fertilising products;
    • labelling – such as the actual nutrients content and their forms which will allow the farmers to modulate the use of the fertilisers depending on the plant needs;
  5. modernises the declaration of conformity and conformity assessment procedures manufacturers of fertilising products have to comply with if they want to trade their products in the EU single market;
  6. delineates the borderlines between fertilising products and Plant Protection Products, to avoid overlap between plant bio-stimulants and plant growth regulators;
  7. enables derived animal-by-products to move freely on the single market as fertilising products after the end point in the manufacturing chain would be laid down in the Animal by-products Regulation[2] [3];
  8. includes recovery rules for bio-waste transformed into composts and digestates. If these products are incorporated in CE marked fertilisers, they are no longer considered to be waste within the meaning of the Waste Framework Directive[4]. This allows waste-derived products to freely circulate in the EU.
What is the STRUBIAS TWG?

STRUBIAS TWG is a technical working group for the development of possible process and product criteria for struvite, biochar and ash based products for use in fertilising products.

The Commission services have selected 31 members[1] and 2 observers for STRUBIAS expert group on recovery rules for fertilising products. Edward Someus/Terra Humana Ltd. has been selected as a Member of the STUBIAS expert group.


The STRUBIAS DG GROW-JRC expert group is a sub-class of the Commission Working Group on fertilisers. It will be operational until the completion of its work which is foreseen to be at the end of 2018. Based on the experts’ inputs, the Commission will prepare a report for a future amendment (Adaptation to Technical Progress) to the proposal for a revised Fertiliser Regulation (COM (2016) 157). This is currently under negotiations with the Council and the EU Parliament.

Who will be affected the revision of the EC 2003/2003 Fertilisers Regulation?
  1. The initiative will mainly affect those producers of innovative fertilisers produced from organic or secondary raw materials in line with the circular economy model, who will be able to reach a critical mass through radically facilitated access to the internal market. Such producers will benefit from the initiative in particular in those Member States which are not providing a sufficiently large home market for new types of fertilisers.
  2. Private and public recovery operators
  3. National authorities: decreased workload when national registration or authorisation systems for fertilisers are fully or partially replaced by EU-wide control mechanisms
  4. Farmers and other fertiliser users: increase in the product variety
  5. General public: will be better protected from contamination of soil, water and food. [1]

[1] Roadmap to the Revision of the Fertilisers Regulation (EC) No 2003/2003, http://ec.europa.eu/smart-regulation/roadmaps/docs/2012_grow_001_fertili...